streaming media

Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end user in the delivery of a supplier. The verb ‘to stream’ refers to the process in order to deliver or receive media in this way; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to leave the download, a process where the end user gets the full file contents before looking or listening to it.

A client end users can use the media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transferred. Differentiating delivery method from the media that is distributed is especially förtelekommunikationsnät, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (eg radio, television) or inherently non-streaming (eg, books, video cassettes, audio-CD-Rs ). For example, in the 1930s, the elevator music was among the earliest popular streaming media available; Nowadays Internet TV is a common form of streaming media. The term “streaming media” may apply to other than video and audio media that live subtitling, ticker tape, and real-time text, all of which are considered “streaming text.”The term “streaming” was first used in the early 1990s as a better description for the video on demand on IP networks; at the time the video is called “store and forward video,” [1] misleading nomenclature.

From 2016, the streaming is generally considered to refer to the case where a user watches digital video content and / or listening to digital audio content on a computer screen and speakers (ranging from a desktop computer to a smartphone) over the internet. With streaming content, users do not need to download the entire digital video or audio file before starting to watch / listen to it. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough medbandbredd of their Internet connection, they can experience a stop in the content, and some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software system. From 2016, two popular streaming services ärvideodelning website YouTube, which contains video and audio files in a wide range of topics and Netflix, which streams movies ochTV programs.

Live streaming refers to Internet content is delivered in real time, as events occur, much as the live television broadcast its content over the air via a television signal. An example of streaming is the Metropolitan Opera Live in HD, a program in which the Metropolitan Opera streams an opera performance “live”, as the performance takes place; in 2013-2014, was 10 operas broadcast by satellite to at least 2,000 theaters in 66 countries. [2] Live Internet streaming requires a form of source media (such as a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to digitize the content , a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be registered at the point of origin, though it often is.


In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted a patent for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines [3] that was the technical basis for what became theMuzak , a streaming technology continuous music for commercial customers without use of radio.Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid 20s. However, little progress over several decades, mainly because of the high costs and limited capacity hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, became consumer-grade personal computers powerful enough to display various media. The primary technical issues related to streaming were: having enough processing power and bus bandwidth to support the required data rate and create low latency interrupt paths in operativsystemetför to prevent buffer underrun thereby enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, the data network is still limited in the mid-1990s, and audio-visual media is usually delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and then save it to a local drive on the end user’s computer or store it as a digital file and play back from the CD-ROM.

Late 1990s – early 2000s

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, had increased user access to computer networks, particularly the Internet, and especially during the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth, especially in the “last mile”. These technical improvements facilitated streaming audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. As well, there was an increased use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP / IP, HTTP, HTML and the Internet became more commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment in this sector.The band severe tire damage were the first group to perform live on the Internet. On 24 June 1993, the band plays a gig at Xerox PARC, while elsewhere in the building, where researchers discuss new technology (the Mbone) for broadcast on the Internet using multicasting. As proof of the PARC technology, was the band’s performance is transmitted and can be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.

Microsoft Research developed the Microsoft TV program that was compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam.Realnetworks was also a pioneer in the market streaming media, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995. [4 ] the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington, 10 november 1995. [5] the concert was a collaboration between the Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash (Guns’ n Roses, Velvet Revolver), Matt Cameron (Soundgarden , Pearl Jam), and Barrett Martin (Screaming Trees) .When Word Magazine was launched in 1995, featured the first ever streaming audio on the Internet. With the help of local musicians first music center power was “Big Wheel” by Karthik Swaminathan and other beings “When we were poor,” by Karthik Swaminathan Marc Ribot and Christine Bard. [ Citation needed ]

Business development

Microsoft developed a media player called Active 1995 that allowed streaming media and included its own streaming format, which was the precursor to the streaming function later in Windows Media Player 6.4 in 1999. In June 1999, Apple also introduced a streaming media format in QuickTime 4 application. It later became widely adopted on the websites along with Real Player and Windows Media streaming format. The competing formats on websites that require each user to download the respective application streaming and resulted in many users have to have all three programs on their computer for general compatibility.

In 2000 launched its “world’s largest streaming video archive” site to help businesses to promote themselves. [6] Webcasting was an emerging tool for business marketing and advertising combined immersive character screen interactivity on the web. The ability to collect data and feedback from potential customers caused this technology to take off quickly. [7]

Around 2002, interest in a single, unified, streaming formats and widespread adoption of Adobe Flash prompted the development of a video streaming format by Flash, which is the format used in Flash-based players in many popular video hosting sites such as YouTube today. Growing consumer demand for streaming YouTube has been implementing a new live streaming service to users. [8] At present, the company also offers a (secured) link back to the available connection speed to the user. [9]

Use of the consumers

These advances in computer networking combined with powerful home computers and modern operating systems made streaming media practical and affordable for ordinary consumers. Stand-alone Internet radio devices have emerged to offer listeners a no-computer option to listen to audio streams. These audio streaming services have become increasingly popular in recent years, such as streaming music hit a record of 118.1 billion streams in 2013. [10] In general, multimedia content has a large volume, so media storage and transmission costs are still significant. To offset this somewhat, the media is generally compressed for both storage and streaming.Konsumenternas increasing demand for streaming High Definition (HD) content has led the industry to develop a number of technologies such as WirelessHD or ITU-T, which are optimized for streaming HD content without forcing the user to install the new network. In 1996, digital pioneer Marc Scarpa produced the first large-scale, on-line, live in history, Adam Yauch led the Tibetan freedom concert, an event that would define the format for social change transmissions. Scarpa continued to pave the streaming media world with projects like Woodstock ’99, Town Hall with President Clinton and more recently Covered CA’s campaign “Tell a friend get covered” as live was streamed on YouTube.

From 2016, a media stream is streamed either “live” or “on demand”. Live streams are generally provided with a means called “true streaming”. True streaming sends the information directly to the computer or device without saving the file on a hard drive. On-demand streaming is provided by a medium called progressive streaming or progressive download . Progressive streaming save the file to a hard drive and then played from that location. On-demand streams are often saved to hard drives and servers for extended periods of time; while the live broadcasts are only available only once (such as during football matches). [11] Streaming media is increasingly linked with the use of social media. For example, sites like YouTube to encourage social interaction in the webcasts through features like chat, online surveys, user posting of comments online, and more.In addition, streaming media are increasingly used for social entrepreneurship and e-learning. [12]Because of the popularity of streaming media, many developers have introduced free HD movie streaming program for the people who use smaller devices such as tablets and smartphones for everyday purposes.

Bandwidth and storage

Unicast Connections require multiple connections from the same streaming server even when it streams the same content

A broadband speed of 2 Mbit / s or more recommended for streaming standard definition video without experiencing buffering or jumping, especially live video, [13] such as a Roku, Apple TV, Google TV or a Sony TV Blu-ray Disc players. 5 Mbit / s recommended for High Definition content and 9 Mbit / s for Ultra-High Definition content. [14] Streaming media storage size is calculated from streaming bandwidth and length of the medium by using the following formula (for a single user and file) requires a storage size in megabytes which are equal to the length (in seconds) × bit rate (in bit / s) / (8 × 1024 × 1024). For example, an hour of digital video encoded at 300 kbit / s (this was a typical broadband video in 2005 and it was usually encoded in a 320 × 240 pixels window size) will be: (3.600 s × 300 000 bit / s) / ( 8 × 1024 × 1024) requires about 128 MB of storage space.

If the file is stored on a server for streaming on-demand and this current seen by 1,000 people at the same time with a Unicastprotokoll, the requirement is 300 kbit / sec × 1000 = 300 000 kbit / s = 300 Mbit / s bandwidth. This corresponds to about 135 GB per hour. Using a multicast protocol the server sends out only a single stream that is common to all users. Therefore, such a power only use 300 kbit / s, serving bandwidth. See below for more information on these protocols. The calculation for streaming is similar. Provided that the seed at the encoder is 500 kbit / s and if the show lasts three hours by 3000 viewers, then the calculation is the number of MB transferred = encoder speed (in bit / s) × number of seconds × number of viewers / (8 * 1024 * 1024) . The result of this calculation is as follows: number of MBs transferred = 500 x 1024 (bit / s) × 3 × 3600 (= 3 hours) x 3000 (number of viewers) / (8 * 1024 * 1024) = 1,977,539 MB


The audio stream is compressed to make the file size smaller by using a audio encoding formats like MP3, Vorbis, AAC, or Opus. The video stream is compressed using a video encoding format to make the file smaller. Video encoding formats include H.264, HEVC, VP8 or VP9. Encoded audio and video streams are mounted in a container “bitstream” such as MP4, FLV, WebM, ASF or ISMA.The bitstream is delivered from a streaming server to a streaming client (eg computer users with sinInternet -connected laptop) using a transport protocol, such as Adobe RTMP or RTP. In the 2010s, technologies that Apple HLS, Microsoft Smooth Streaming, Adobe HDS and generic formats such as MPEG-DASH has surfaced to allow for adaptive bit rate streaming over HTTP as an alternative to using their own transport protocol. Often a streaming transport protocol used to send video from the event location to a “cloud” transcoding services and CDN, which then uses HTTP-based transport protocol to distribute video to individual home users. [15] The streaming client (end-user ) can interact with the streaming server by using a control protocol, such as MMS or RTSP.

Minutes challenges

Designing a network protocol to support streaming media raises many problems. Datagram protocol, such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP), send the media stream as a series of small packets. This is simple and effective; However, there is no mechanism within the protocol to guarantee delivery. It is up to the receiving application to detect loss or corruption and restore data with error correction technology. If data is lost, the stream may suffer a dropout. The Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) was specifically designed for streaming media over networks. RTSP runs over a variety of transport protocols, while the latter two are built on top of UDP.

Another method that seems both incorporate the advantages of using a standard Web protocols and the ability to be used for streaming even live content is adaptive bitrate streaming. HTTP adaptive bitrate streaming based on HTTP progressive download, but in contrast to the previous approach, these files are very small, so they can be compared with the streaming package, much like the case of using RTSP and RTP. [16] reliable protocols, such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) guarantees proper delivery of each bit in the media stream. However, they accomplish this with a system of timeouts and retries, which makes them more complicated to implement. It also means that when there is data loss on the network, the media stream stalls while the protocol handlers detect the loss and retransmit the missing data. Peers can minimize this effect by buffering data for display. While delays due to buffering is acceptable in video-on-demand scenarios, users of interactive applications such as video conferencing experience a loss of fidelity if the delay caused by buffering exceeding 200 ms. [17]

Multicasting transmits the same copy of multimedia over the network to a group of clients

Unicast protocols send a separate copy of the media stream from the server to each recipient.Unicast is the norm for most Internet connections, but does not scale well when many users want to see the same television program simultaneously. Multicast protocols have been developed to reduce server / network loads due to the dual data streams that occurs when many recipients receive unicast content streams independently. These protocols send a single stream from the source to a group of recipients. Depending on the network and type, multicast transmission may or may not be possible. One potential disadvantage of multicasting is the loss of video on demand functionality. Continuous streaming of radio or television material usually precludes the recipient’s ability to control uppspelningen.Dock this problem can be reduced by elements such as caching servers, digital set-top boxes, and buffered media players.

IP Multicast provides a means to send a single media stream to a group of recipients in a computer network. A multicast protocols, usually the Internet Group Management Protocol, is used to manage the delivery of multicast streams to groups of recipients on a LAN. One of the challenges in deploying IP multicast is that routers and firewalls between LANs must allow the passage of packages for multi-user groups. If the organization that serves the content has control over the network between the server and the receiver (ie, education, government and corporate intranets), then routing protocols such as Protocol Independent Multicast can be used to deliver current content to multiple Local Area Network segments. As the mass delivery of content, multicast protocols need much less energy and other resources, widespread deployment of reliable multicast (broadcast-like) protocols and their preferential use, where possible, is a significant ecological and economic challenge. [ Citation needed ] peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols arrange for prerecorded streams to be sent between computers. This prevents the server and its network connections from becoming a bottleneck. But this raises the technological, performance, safety, quality and business issues.

Applications and Marketing

Useful – and typical – applications of “streaming” concept is such a long video lectures.Performed “online” on the Internet [18] One advantage of this presentation is that these lectures can be very long, even though they can always be interrupted or repeated at various locations.There are also new marketing concept. For example, the Berlin Philharmonic sells Internet live coverage of the whole concert, rather than multiple CDs or other fixed media, through their so-called “Digital Concert Hall”  [19] using YouTube for “final” order. These “online concerts” are also spread across a variety of places – cinemas – in different places on Earth. A similar concept is used by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Many successful startup ventures has based its business on streaming media. [20] Some of the most popular live streaming app services are Periscope, String Wire, Meerkat, Hang w /, Nichestreem and Facebook. [21] Popular investors in media streaming is Accel , benchmark, Balderton, Lake Star, Klaus Hommels, Marc Andreessen, Sina Afra, Nicholas Zemanek, Daniel Ek.


It is possible to record any streaming media by some media player, such as VLC player.


See also: Copyright aspects of download and streaming

Streaming copyrighted material may involve infringing copies of works in question. Streaming, or watch content on the Internet is legal in Europe, although this material is copyrighted.