Maverick Movies

High-definition video

The HD (AD), better known as HD or HQ (Abbreviation for High Definition or High Quality , respectively), is a system image, video or sound with higher resolution than standard definition , reaching resolutions of 1280 x 720 pixels and 1920 × 1080 pixels. If the video was also in 3D , it would be 3DHD.

HDTVs are known as HDTV .

History of the AD

Visual comparison of common video resolution with high resolution.

High definition, known as high definition (HD), is a project that has more than forty years of existence and began when the technology was still analog. He intended:

  1. Raise the number of lines. PAL , from 625 to 1250. NTSC , from 525 to 1150 ap.
  2. Aspect ratio : from 4: 3 to 16: 9, a longer format, similar to widescreen cinematic formats with black bands both up and down ( Cinemascope , Panavisión , etc.).
  3. Also raise the frame frequency: from 25 frames per second to double, today came up to triple.
  4. Also more audio quality. Comparable to that obtained in CD reproduction. Upgrading to DVD or HDMI.

At first there were two high-definition formats: Muse Narrow and HD Mac , but the serious problem with these formats was that the bandwidth (36 MHz) they needed to broadcast the television signal was much larger than the one analogue television. In Europe it was tried at all costs to be compatible with PAL with the creation of a hybrid D2-Mac format . In Japan , however, they ignored compatibility with PAL and NTSC; was developed more, but in both sites ended up being an absolute failure, creating in parallel the format ADC-SDI in the USA


  • Comparison of the different formats
  • HDTV , four times the standard resolution.

  • Standard resolution .


Technical characteristics

  • There are several resolutions; the most used are:
    • 1920 x 1080 pixels;
    • 1280 x 720 pixels.
  • It has duality of sweeps between progressive (p) and interlaced (i).
  • The repetition frequency of frame or frame per second is variable to satisfy the need of different users. Their values ​​can be: 24, 25, 30, 50 or 60.
  • Its aspect ratio is fixed, 16: 9 .
  • Being digital eliminates PAL and NTSC defects .
  • It is usually accompanied by surround sound 5.1 or higher.

Practical rules in AD 


Rule Picture Scanning View User
1920 × 1080 24 (p) Cinema Cinema
1920 × 1080 25 (p) Movies on TV TV DVB 50Hz
1920 × 1080 30 (p) Movies on TV Television ATSC 60Hz
1920 × 1080 fifty (i) TV TV DVB 50Hz
1920 × 1080 60 (i) TV Television ATSC 60Hz
1280 × 720 25 (p) Movies on TV TV DVB 50Hz
1280 × 720 30 (p) Movies on TV Television ATSC 60Hz


Digital broadcasting in AD 

Digital technology improves the quality of the standard. It allows, thanks to the compression, to lower the bandwidth necessary for the emission. After the failure of analogue HDTV Europe chose to create a digital television system (based on D2-Mac), for which it created the MPEG video compression system together with Japan. To this system they called it DVB , with the advantage to reduce the demands of bandwidth by channel. Today it is mostly made by satellite, but cable and Digital Terrestrial Television are an affordable option for the future, subsequently Europe reached an agreement with Japan to adopt the HD 1080i video standard to the detriment of the 720p American HD, as a result of this agreement Japan developed its own version based on DVB, which was called ISDB .

In the United States, hundreds of broadcasts are already broadcasting in high definition, especially sports events on Pay Per View (PPV or pay per view ).

In Europe , the Euro 1080 broadcast began in 2004, a new HD channel. It is the first to work with 1920 × 1080 pixels, complying with European standard compression standard (DVB-S MPEG2). This is broadcast by the European satellite Astra and has a conventional channel and another of events for Pay Per View . Currently.

In Spain the first broadcasts in HD were made during the events Universal Exhibition of Seville (1992) in Seville and the Olympic Games Barcelona 92 during the year 1992 in the analog format HD Mac , format that was abandoned in 1995. Canal + 1 HD, Canal + 2 HD, Channel + Xtra HD, Channel + HD Action, Channel + HD Comedy, Channel + DCine HD, Channel + HD 2, Channel + Champions League HD, Channel + Champions League 2 HD, Channel + Champions League 3 HD, Channel + HD Sports, Channel + Sports 2 HD, Canal + Soccer HD, Canal + Golf HD, Canal + 3D, HD Box Office and HD Box Office 2, premium payment channels that can be viewed with iPlus via the Canal +. HD Cinema, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies, HD Movies HD HD, Channel HD +, Eurosport HD, Trace Sports HD, Disney Channel HD, MTV Live HD, Mezzo Live HD and Unitel Classica HD are the high definition payment channels available in Spain on various platforms . Also some autonomous televisions broadcast or have broadcast in this format through DVB-T Mpeg4 1080i, such as Aragón Television ( Aragón 2 HD ), Channel 9 (Channel 9 HDTV) in the Valencian Community , Televisió de les Illes Balears IB3 HDor TV3 , in Catalonia ( TV3 HD ). 1 In 2009 began the broadcasts in open tests of TVE HD , which since April 2010 are beginning to receive in other regions of Spain. This channel had already had a short walk in 2008 when it broadcasted through Digital + the Olympic Games of Beijing, replacing in its frequency to Canal + HD and disappearing after the end of the event. In Asturias , the regional channel TPA(Television of the Principality of Asturias) began its broadcasts in tests in HD with the party of Real Oviedo against Mallorca B. To achieve the bandwidth necessary, removed from the mux channel TPA 8 and Localia . In Madrid, since October 2010 officially broadcasts Telemadrid HD , in October 2010 begin the broadcasts of Antena 3 HD , Telecinco HD and in November 2010 La Sexta HD . (The HD channels in DVB-T broadcasting in Spain are free).

In Mexico , digital broadcasting of high definition television began in the 1990s with Televisa , in collaboration with the Japanese company NHK . Since 2005, both Televisa and TV Azteca have opened their TV channels to HD Digital ATSC channels . Currently in Mexico HD Channel is broadcast, HD TV Forum, Channel 5 HD, Azteca 7 HD, Galavision HD, Channel 11 TV Mexico HD, Azteca 13-HD, Channel 22-HD and Channel 40 HD free in major cities of Mexico (all except for Foro HD HD, which is broadcast only in Mexico City); and pay-TV channels such as MTV-HD, National Geographic Wild HD, CNN-HD, FOX HD, FOX News HD, HBO HD, Movie City HD, TDN-HD, OnDemand HD, FOX Sports HD, Rush HD , NFL HD and Concert Channel HD, among others. Since its launch these channels are available in the main cities of Mexico .

In Costa Rica , the digital broadcast in High Definition began in November of 2006, when Teletica Channel 7 acquires the equipment necessary for the simultaneous transmission in HD. Teletica HD and Repretel HD are the only channels in Costa Rica to broadcast in HD, although thanks to the different pay TV systems, you can enjoy several international channels in HD, for example ESPN HD, Fox Sports HD, Discovery HD Theater, Food HD, HGTV HD, Movie City HD, CNN HD, among others.

Cinema in AD

Manufacturers make special camera lines, colorimetry controllers and editions to replace the film. The HD, compared to the old 35 mm, offers lower budgets, ease of handling in the assembly, agility in the treatment and ease of introduction of synthesis techniques.

George Lucas , James Cameron , Robert Rodriguez and Bryan Singer , for example, have used these HD systems that achieve the highest quality, so that the final result is almost identical in some cases.

Distribution and exhibition

Once the film is finished, you can switch to a movie to display with the traditional projectors, which is what is currently done (although it is a contradiction to go back to the old methods). The absolute triumph of digital technology will occur when the display in all cinemas is also made through digital video projectors . The transport of the film can be done directly using satellite technology, and therefore a film can be released simultaneously all over the world.

AD television, motor and competitive weapon 

The implementation strategy of Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT), followed by the North American broadcasters , relies mainly on high definition broadcasts, which makes it a strategic weapon for the digital age. They postpone for the future the use of other advantages offered by DTT. One symptom of the competitive strength of HDTV is that satellite and cable operators have launched to offer high definition broadcasts and channels.

The dominant Macrogéneros in the offer of HD television of satellite and cable are fiction and the sport, although there is a considerable presence of the information and even some incursion in the advanced services and of interactive character.

The option of taking high definition television as an engine has been a driving force and has promoted the commitment to compete in this field. This acts as a unifying element in the background that may favor the ultimate convergence of interests between operadsta by innovative services of an interactive nature.

Audio of AD 

In the early years of this 21st century, two audio formats have appeared (not for television and cinema sound, but only for audio) that have been labeled as high definition formats. They are the DVD-Audio and the SACD .

High-definition sound is mainly characterized by being a quality standard that can support up to 8 audio channels, in the case of DVD-Audio each encoded with 24 bits and a maximum sampling frequency of 192 kHz, with a frequency response of 96 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of 144 dB maximum over the entire frequency band. In the case of SACD ( Super Audio CD ) a sampling frequency of 2.8 MHz is used but a single bit, giving a frequency response of 100 kHz, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 120 dB up to 20 kHz. In both systems the bandwidth of reproducible frequencies (if the loudspeakers allow it) greatly exceeds the response of the human ear (from approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHz).

Two commercial HD audio standards are:

  • DTS-HD 2 ( Digital Theater System – High Definition ) (used in cinemas and also in movies and video games in DVD , HD DVD and Blu-Ray format ).
  • TrueHD 3 of Dolby Digital (direct competition from DTS-HD).

Current formats at home level

A “battle” of formats between the HD DVD and the Blu-ray was freed . The first, supported by companies such as Toshiba and Microsoft ; the second, by other multinational companies including Sony or Philips . So Microsoft sold optional HD DVD players as an accessory to its Xbox 360 console , while Sony included a Blu-Ray player as standard on its PlayStation 3 .

On January 7, 2008, Warner Bros. announced that it was opting for the Blu-Ray and 7 days later the news was made public that Universal was not going to renew by HD DVD format and was going to start working with the rival format. Also Microsoft , a longtime champion of the HD DVD format , hinted that their support would go to the winning format of the contest. In a short period of time, the HD DVD format received many hard hits, which it tried to cope with a drastic reduction in the price of its readers, which were affordable for the domestic consumer (€ 100), compared to 500 € costing the playersBlu-Ray . (Reference prices as of 01/30/2008.)

On February 19, 2008, following the loss of support from some of the major film production studios, Toshiba announced at a press conference that it would stop pushing the HD DVD format , awarding the Blu-Rayvictory in the so-called War of Formats . The main reason alleged by Toshiba would be ‘various changes produced in the market’. 4

The differences between both formats and DVDs are:


Single Layer Capacity ( GB )
  • 23.3
  • 25
  • 27
fifteen 19 4.7
Double Layer Capacity (GB)
  • 46.6
  • fifty
  • 54
30 24 8.5
Wavelength of the laser beam ( nm ) 405 405 650 650
Data transfer rate ( Mb / s )
  • 36.0
  • 54.0
36.55 40.0 (does not indicate whether it is
data or audio / video)
  • 11.1
  • 10.1
Supported Formats
  • MPEG-2
  • MPEG-4 AVC
  • VC-1
  • MPEG-2
  • VC-1 (based on WMV )
  • H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC
  • MPEG-1
  • MPEG-2
  • MPEG-4 AVC
  • VC-1
  • MPEG-1
  • MPEG-2
Resistance to scratches and dirt Yes Yes Do not Do not Do not Do not Do not Do not
Maximum video resolution supported ( p ) 1080 1080 1080
  • 480
  • 576



The Blu-ray has a capacity of 25  GB (single layer and a face), which is about six hours video and audio HD. There are also capacities of 50 GB (double layer, one side), 100 GB (triple layer) and 128 GB (four layers). 100 and 128 GB disks are referred to as BDXL and fall within the Blu-Ray standard itself, 5 however they are incompatible with any reader that does not support BDXL. The first compatible readers have started coming out in 2011.

This format gets its name from the bluish color of the laser that reads it ( blue ray means ‘blue ray’). The disadvantage of this format is that its price is higher than HD DVD, being thus the cost slightly more than twice its competitor.


The HD DVD ( High Density Digital Versatile Disc ) has a storage capacity lower than Blu-ray , which is about 15  GB (single layer, one side) about four hours of video in high definition. Toshiba announced a 51GB HD DVD.

The big advantage of this format was that it is much cheaper to produce and sell due to its similarity with the conventional DVD.

In the end, this format was abandoned in favor of Blu-ray.

Ogg is an HD container format, developed by the Foundation and is the native format for the multimedia codecs also developed by The format is patent-free and open as well as all the technology, designed to give a high degree of efficiency in streaming and file compression.

High Definition Television

The HDTV or HDTV (stands for high definition television ) is one of the formats, along with the digital television ( DTV ), are characterized by broadcast television signals in a quality digital superior to traditional analog television systems in color ( NTSC , SECAM , PAL ).

Previously the term applied to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace the test models. It was also used to refer to earlier HD models , particularly in Europe , called D2 Mac, and HD Mac, but which could not be widely implemented.

The terms HD ready (“ready for high definition”) and compatible HD (“compatible with high definition”) are being used for advertising purposes. These terms indicate that the electronic device that owns it, whether it is a television or an image projector, is capable of reproducing signals in High Definition; although the fact that it is compatible with the contents of this standard does not imply that the device is high definition or has the necessary resolution, as it happens with some televisions based on technology of plasmawith less vertical definition than televisions of years back (833×480 instead of the 720×576 pixels – anamorphic equivalent to 940×576-), which are compatible with signals in high definition because they reduce the resolution of the image to adapt to the real resolution of the screen.

Comparison with SDTV 

HDTV has at least twice the resolution than the SDTV , which is why you can show much more detail compared to an analog TV or a normal DVD. In addition, the technical standards for HDTV broadcasting allow it to be projected using a 16: 9 aspect ratio without using color bands and therefore content resolution can be increased.

First systems 


The pioneers in HD technology were the Japanese broadcasters, which have been broadcasting in HD for more than 15 years. Japan began with a system of 1035 lines of resolution called MUSE, developed by the company NHK in the year 1980. The main problem of this system was the excessive use of the transmission bands, as it required up to 5 times more spectral space than a channel standard television.


The HD-MAC offered 1250 lines, with 50 frames per second as the PAL system and the possibility of satellite transmission. It was the European choice for the HDTV (HD MAC) market, it was a complex mix of analogue video signals multiplexed with digital sound. The resolution was 1250 lines of which 1152 were visible, with 50 frames per second and 16: 9 aspect. It was widely used in the JJ.OO. of Barcelona 92 .

Current systems for high definition 

There are three defined technical standards: the American ( ATSC ), the European ( DVB-T ) and the Japanese ( ISDB-T ).

  • ATSC: It was designed to add a digital transmitter to each NTSC transmitter without interference between the signals. Developed and used in the United States and adopted or in use in South Korea , Canada , Mexico , El Salvador and Honduras with capacity to transmit in HD. The standard for reception in mobile phones, called ATSC Mobile DTV has been developed but is not integrated to the standard and will still be in full implementation.
  • DVB: family of television standards, consists of different versions; DVB-T / S / C (Terrestrial / Satellite / Cable) is a digital television system, based on the low-definition version of the HD HD analog system called D2 MAC. Its development was due to the failure of the high definition analog (required 36MHz of bandwidth). It was abandoned in the 1990s, for the benefit of a digitized version of D2 MAC, which was renamed DVB ; uses MPEG-2 encoding, then went on to use the MPEG-4 codec to optimize bandwidth. Supports resolutions 480i, 576i, 720p, 1080i and 1080p, 50 / 60Hz, and 6, 7 and 8 MHz, PAL and NTSC channels. Currently under development and test implementation the new systemDVB-T2 that will require new decoders because it is planned to coexist with the old DVB-T from 2008, but is not expected to start firmly until after the analogue blackout that will release much of the already saturated electromagnetic spectrum in Europe . 1 has been successfully tested at speeds of 45 Mbit / s in Soweto by emitting four 1080p channels simultaneously in the same Mux, reaching a theoretical maximum of 192 Mbit / s. The system is in adoption or in use in European countries, Colombia , Panama , India , South Africa , Australia and somecountries. To improve your bandwidth and reception capabilities.
  • ISDB-T: is a standard developed in Japanwhich has flexibility, since it can be used with bandwidth for 6, 7 and 8 MHz signal, adapting easily to any part of the world. It is compatible with NTSC and PAL analog standards. You can send superior audio and picture signals (FULL HDTV and CD or 5.1 quality audio) and multiplex up to 4 standard definition channels to optimize the radio spectrum. It also has multimedia services with return and interactive programs from homes. It has the capacity to transmit to mobile devices for free and with the same infrastructure existing in the TV channel, with low power it is able to cover wide extensions of rugged territories, as it is the case of Japan and much of the cordillerano border and peaceful. It is the official digital television standard adopted in Japan and has been modified in Brazil , which subsequently adopted it, followed by Argentina , Chile , Paraguay , Bolivia , Peru , Ecuador , Venezuela , Uruguay , Costa Rica , Nicaragua and Guatemala (with the exception of of Colombia , Panama , Guyana , Suriname , Honduras , El Salvador and Mexico), in addition to other Spanish-American countries where experimental tests of the system are carried out, since they study to incorporate it like official norm.


The Savior

Argentina [ edit ]

Argentina was one of the first countries to adopt an HD standard. After the study by a technical committee (ATA, Argentine Chamber of Suppliers and Manufacturers of Broadcasting Equipment, Argentine Chamber of Electronics Industries, Association of Argentine Electronic Terminal Factories, ADECUA and CNC , on October 22, 1998, it was established the official US ATSC 2 standard, prompting protests on the part of Brazil, considering that it was better to make a joint decision. Shortly afterwards the test transmissions began, with ARTEAR being the first company to broadcast in high definition.

Thus, El Trece inaugurated the transmissions in high definition in the parties of this country in World-wide Glass of Soccer of Germany 2006 . During 2007 it transmitted 12 hours of programming in Dolby 5.1 sound and in HD (High Definition) widescreen 16: 9 (used in the cinema) by the tuning 12.1. All in a legally approved ATSC standard .

However, the Argentine government again creates a technical study commission, which after meeting on a couple of occasions suggests the adoption of the Japanese standard ISDB-T . Thus, on August 31, 2009 , the ATSC standard was abandoned and the Japanese standard was adopted. 3 The election was initialed with the signing of two agreements. In one Japan committed to transfer technology, train human resources and equip Channel 7(Public Television) so that it could begin with the transmissions. The other agreement was concluded with Brazil and plans to work together to develop the new reception device in the region. What led the Government to lean towards this standard were the possibilities of industrial development and the generation of qualified employment. Japan pledged not to charge royalties for the use of the technology and together with Brazil invited Argentina to participate in the ISDB-T Development Forum, where future technological innovations were discussed together.

As of June 2010, the first official high-definition broadcast began using the new standard through Channel 7. Although the amount of HD content was very limited due to the lack of equipment to perform this type of content, broadcast much of the 2010 FIFA World Cup ™ during June and July 2010 in HD.

The first transmissions were isolated tests carried out by some companies using the frequencies granted for this purpose. A mechanism that does not really contribute to the orderly selection of a standard and lacks the necessary rigor to make an official decision in this regard. This modality was implemented in the last decade as a result of US pressures. to force the ATSC standard and start the test emissions as soon as possible, with the support of some of the broadcasters then. Such is so that Telefe began transmitting in ATSC supporting it with great vehemence and then switched to DVB , both in modulation and in preference.

Currently, the sale of LCD TVs and LED HDTVs is increasing and it is increasingly common to find in the homes of the City of Buenos Aires and the Buenos Aires metropolitan area the digital television service offered by the cable operators. While in the rest of the country only the Interconnected Network through a DVB-S system as a contribution platform and DVB-C as a distribution platform, is present in several cities in the interior of the country.

On August 29, 2010, the first live broadcast from abroad was made, when a women’s World Hockey World Cup match was held from Rosario (Argentina – South Africa). The company Pulsar Television HD was contracted by the Public Television to generate the images that were later seen through the system of Digital Terrestrial Television and cable companies that emitted the Digital Public TV signal.

Versions of the Argentine channels of Open TV in HD

  • The Thirteen HD
  • Telefe HD
  • Channel 9 Freedom HD
  • America 2 HD
  • Channel 7 HD
  • HD Encounter
  • DeporTV HD

There are also high-definition pay-TV versions of the following channels: C5N HD, TN HD, Rocket HD, I Want HD, ESPN HD, Fox Sports HD, TyC Sports HD, TyC Sports 2 HD, TyC Sports 3 HD, TyC Max HD , HD Sport Cable, Sport Cable 2 HD Sport Cable 3 HD, A24 HD, America Sports HD, Channel 26 HD, HD Multideportes and Cartoon Network HD


Brazil was the only country where issuers and the emerging industries team were part of the laboratory and field tests to compare the technical effectiveness of the three existing technology standards. The Mackenzie Presbyterian University, together with the NEC team , performed several tests that led to the choice of ISDB-Tb, (b = Brazilian) in modified form. The Institute of the University of São Paulo, in its integrated systems laboratory, created a fully Brazilian transmission by default. Digital TV in Brazil arrived at 20:48 on December 2, 2007, with a speech by the President of the Republic. Initially in São Pauloby default Japanese with some settings. On April 20, the signal in high definition was launched by Rede Globo only in the Greater Rio metropolitan region. HDTV is already present in Campinas , Goiânia , Belo Horizonte , Porto Alegre , Curitiba , Manaus , Belém , Florianópolis and Salvador de Bahía , the last two in the experimental phase. Santos is the second inland city to receive the digital signal, in March 2009 [ citation needed ] .


On September 14, 2009, the still-current president Michelle Bachelet announced that Chile opted for the ISDB-Tb (MPEG-4) standard. Minister René Cortázar said that the new standard was chosen for the best reception quality, for the greater number of signals and for the option to operate TV by cell phone. 4

Previously, on September 30, 2008, the minister general secretary of government, Francisco Vidal , said in a conversation with Radio Cooperativa : “I beg your pardon, because I have said as three times this year that” next Monday the project will be submitted to Parliament. ” 5 Now I can really say that next week we are in a position to send the digital television standard to Congress. ”

The channel of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (Channel 13 – UCTV) has performed HDTV tests under the ATSC standard on 12.1 VHF frequency for more than two years, and since November 2006 under the DVB-T standard on frequency 21 UHF and under the Japanese standard for channel 24. It was planned to perform DVB-H tests in the short term. Currently in Chile, Channel 13 tests with the Japanese system, transmitting with very low power and covering much of Santiago at fixed reception level. As for the mobile reception, it is received without any problem.

Currently the broadcast of Channel 13 in ISDB-T is done on channel 24, broadcasting a documentary about Santiago de Chile in Japanese language 1080i .

Digital broadcasting began experimentally in 1995 , broadcasting from Punta Arenas , press reports in compressed digital images, an experience often used in the Press Department and later in other regions of the country, such as Arica Parinacota in Los Ríos , of Los Lagos , the Bío Bío and Aysen . Added to this are some transmissions via fiber optics in Cuba.

Television Nacional de Chile ( TVN ), between November 1999 and May 2000, conducted experimental HDTV transmissions under the ATSC standard at 8 VHF frequency. As of November 2007, TVN transmits test signal in ATSC on 33 UHF channel, 4 SDTV signals on the same frequency.

Recently the National Television Association (ANATEL) affirmed in Mercury its rejection of the US standard (ATSC) in favor of (ISDB-T) Japanese standard as the definitive standard for digital TV [ citation needed ] , previously the Chilean blogosphere had expressed support for ISDB-T despite the fact that ANATEL remained firm for months in favor of the US standard.

While ARETEL BIOBIO is supporting the European standard in a culminating way, as it has more flexibility, interactivity with viewers, and above all, more possibility of integrating the people of the community.

In September 2007, a free-standing commission for DTT was created with a pioneering plan in the world. It consists of choosing 160 families who can use the 3 standards in play (ISDB-T, DVB-t and ATSC) at the same time and can evaluate them. The government through the subway will take all the equipment to the volunteer’s home, whether decoders or HD televisions, so that he can give his impressions on each standard.

The controversy over the bandwidth used in Chile (6 MHz) was present, because the European standard uses 8 MHz leaving a poorer HD in definition for bandwidths, as the Chilean (6 MHz). Only 2 countries with a bandwidth of 6 MHz / NTSC have chosen DVB-T, creating a great technical debate (clarifying that ISDB-T and ATSC comply with the Chilean bandwidth without major problems).

On September 14, 2009, Chile opted for the Japanese-Brazilian Standard for Digital Television. Given the geographical conditions, this norm is the optimal one certified by university studies that guarantee the election. 6 Now, it is only necessary that Congress approve the pertinent regulation so that the transmissions are legal in the country.

Immediately after choosing the Digital TV standard, Subtel delivered DTT test licenses (since September 15, 2009) to TVN, Chilevisión and Channel 13, which are broadcasting under the ISDB-T HD / ONE-SEG standard in test mode until the congress approves the regulation. [ citation needed ]

Channel 13 was the first open signal that offers its contents in high definition, as of November 16, 2009, through signal 813 of cable operator VTR and on July 26, 2010 through signal 813 by Movistar TV Digital and Gtd Manquehue by channel 813 as well. 7 Currently, it has about 40% of full HD quality programming (1920 x 1080 resolution) and 16: 9 aspect ratio. 8 Also, on the occasion of the World Cup South Africa 2010 , TVN HD began to be transmitted by the cable operators VTR (Channel 807) and TuVes HD(Channel 71). This, despite TVN’s refusal to use its signal by pay-TV providers.

Costa Rica 

In Costa Rica, Teletica Channel 7 has been tested in HD since 2006, where it broadcasted HD movies. Since then Teletica has bought HDC-1000 studio cameras, which aside from those sold to the two major channels in Mexico is the first that Sony sells throughout Latin America, and also acquired two HDC-1400. Producing original programming in High Definition.

Repretel Channel 6, also transmits in HD in the channels RHD 6.1 and 6.2, although the majority of programming is rescaled.

The Government of Costa Rica, currently has not chosen a fixed technology, there is a fee limit until the first quarter of 2010 to choose a technology. To date, DVB-T and ISDB-T technologies have been presented. It is expected that in a couple of years there will be an “Analog Blackout”.


In Ecuador , the digital terrestrial television system chosen was the ISDB-T . Thus, the Ecuadorian television Teleamazonas will air Teleamazonas HD , which will be the high-definition signal of Teleamazonas . Their transmissions began on March 1, 2011, making the television station the first in Ecuador to have an HDTV signal in the air. Equally Ecuavisa with Ecuavisa HD , which will be the high-definition signal of Ecuavisa . Their transmissions began on March 1, 2011, making the television station the second in Ecuador to have an HDTV signal in the air,Canal Uno HD and Oromar HD other channels such as TC Television , TV Range , Ecuador TV , RTS , Oromar Television , Telerama , RTU, Rádio y Televisión Unidas , Latele (Ecuador) and the UCSG Television channel are televised in test transmissions of the HDTV signal . On the other hand, Channel One is the only channel to spend the matches of the Ecuadorian soccer team in HDTV but not in open signal but in pay television through Grupo TV Cable, at the moment these are the HDTV broadcasters in Ecuador .

Channels are currently on the air: Ecuador HD TV , Oromar HD , Teleamazonas HD , TC HD , Ecuavisa HD , RTU , RTS HD and Canal Uno HD . In the near future the signal is expected in DTT of HD Satellite Television (in Guayaquil).

El Salvador 

In El Salvador , the most important television station in that country Telecorporación Salvadoreña began the tests of transmission in high definition in 2007 .as I can axesar

The preparation process for the change of analog-to-digital production starts in 2005 , two years later, in 2007 TCS renews its entire fleet of cameras and production equipment and acquires Sony XDCAM HD equipment . 9 In 2010 Telecorporación Salvadoreña began broadcasting some of its programs and slots in HD – high definition, pilot tests were carried out at the end of 2009 and its implementation started with the transmission of the 2010 World Cup .

At the moment its prime time is transmitted in format HD composed by the programs Who wants to be millionaire? El Salvador , Dancing for a Dream El Salvador , Singing for a Dream El Salvador , Ticket (television program) , and international sporting events such as the World Cup and the UEFA Champions League , among others.

United States 

The United States established the basis for the development of high definition and analogue television systems in 1991. The United States was the first country to broadcast the best quality of HDTV. Throughout the country all channels are broadcast in High Definition. Hispanic channels broadcast in HD are Telemundo, divisions of NBC UNIVERSAL, Univision and the sister chain Telefutura, as well as others that are HBO Latino and Galavisión. The United States is one of the countries that transmits the best HD and was the first to have HDTV and 3D @max technology. Many channels from Latin American countries have had many conflicts with the United States because of the technology that this country has today and has developed.

HDTV Channels on Air

  • NBC Universal
  • FOX Networks
  • CBS
  • PIX News
  • TNT
  • USES
  • Universal
  • CNN
  • The Weather Channel
  • Abc


In Colombia , the digital television system chosen is the European one ( DVB-T2 ). The decision of the National Television Commission was announced on August 28 , 2008, after different delays and negotiations. Colombia decided to operate with the MPEG-4 compression system .

The first TV operator to offer HD was DirecTV (satellite). In the first half of 2010 Claro (cable-satellite), Tigo-Une ( IPTV ) and ( HFC ) and Movistar Colombia (satellite) operators began to provide for the arrival of the FIFA World Cup South Africa 2010.

Currently the private channels Caracol and RCN transmit their high-definition signal in the digital television ( DVB-T ) and DVB-T2 format to the cities of Bogotá and Medellín, the cities of Barranquilla and Cali have DVB-T2 since May 2012

RTVC, National Radio and Television of Colombia currently broadcast digital signals since 2012 through its three channels, Channel One, Institutional Signal and Signal Colombia, covering 85% of Bogota.

These are the following channels of Open Television available in High Definition

  • RCN HD 1/2
  • CaracolTV HD 1/2/3
  • Citytv SD
  • Canal Uno HD
  • Tr3ce HD Channel
  • Institutional Channel HD


This country is the first in Central America [ citation needed ] to implement HDTV in 2006, in time to broadcast all matches of the World Cup that year, through channels 3 and 7, with its repetitive high definition, channel 19. It is still in the experimental stage, but more channels in the future are expected to begin with the transition.


In Honduras, 4 channels produce programming in high definition. Being the first Campus TV, which has the best technology and HD quality in Honduras and Central America, 10 with its FullHD programming in 1080i on frequencies 59.1 and 59.2. Canal TEN (National Educational Television) also ventured into this area at frequency 20.1. Televicentro , the country’s largest television network, broadcast 56 of the 64 matches of the 2010 South Africa World Cup in high definition and is currently broadcasting football matches and special events produced in this quality through its HD channel. As of December 6, 2010, Televicentro began its new HD era, with the transmission of its news programs in this format through Amnet / Tigo and Cablecolor.11 In 2013, Televicentro presented the only and largest HD mobile unit in Honduras. Able to transmit special events and sports. Like the matches of the National Team of Honduras and National League matches, in HD. Canal 11 also broadcasts all its news programs and the sports program “Todo Deportes” in High Definition through Cablecolor. HCH Television Digital has been broadcasting for 13 years, but this technology has not always existed until the beginning of this decade. Channel 11, broadcasts high-definition matches in the national league of Honduras as well as, telenovelas in high definition.


The Mexican television company Televisa began to make experimental broadcasts on HDTV in the early 1990s in collaboration with the Japanese company NHK but these were analogue signals in MUSE format (Format being replaced by ISDB-T) which made the primigenia commercially “non-viable” HDTV. To date, and due to the telecommunications reform of the government of President Enrique Peña Nieto , it has managed to convert all of the analog signals to digital before the end of 2015 . Channels like Once TV of the IPN , Channel 13 of TV Azteca , Channel of the Stars ofTelevisa , among others, can now be tuned in high definition, in resolutions 1080i / 30 and 1080p / 30 Hz in any locality of the country.

During the first half of 2005, at least one cable provider in Mexico City ( Cablevision ) began offering five HDTV channels to subscribers who purchased a digital video recorder (DVR).

In mid-April 2010, the SKY satellite payment service launched its HD service for subscribers who purchased a SKY + HD decoder. Currently the SKY service offers two decoders with HD technology and Full HD, which are SKYHD and SKY + HD; both decoders offer 35 channels with these technologies, in addition to offering different events purchased individually.

In December 2010, Dish Network Mexico satellite payment service launched its HD service with 6 channels plus an HD antenna.

TV Azteca transmits since 2005 the channels 24HD, 25HD and 26HD of open television with signal HDTV. And in the World-wide one of Germany also presented transmissions in HDTV in frontier cities, Monterrey , Guadalajara and Mexico, DF Channel 24 previously transmitted another content to 1080i, mainly from third parties (films, documentaries, TV series) and subsequently began to transmit the same analog channel 7 signal, while channel 25 transmits practically the same signal as the analog channel 13, simply re-scaling the content to 1080i and stretching the image from 4: 3 to 16: 9 causing people and objects to appear disproportionate, yet some “key” programs like certain novels, magazine shows and football games Joy, All, Windowing, Facts) are featured in true 1080i / 16: 9.

In 2004 Televisa made its first soap opera in HD presented in 1080i / 16: 9: Rubí .

On January 1, 2008 Televisa began distributing all of its news content in HD 1080i / 16: 9. On January 7, 2008 TV Azteca began distributing all of its news content in HD 1080i / 16: 9.

  • In Monterrey are available channels Azteca 13 and 7HD of TV Azteca, Channel 5, Channel of the Stars, Monterrey Television and Gala TV Mexico by Televisa, in addition to Multimedios Television that also emits part of its open signal in HDTV.
  • In Ciudad Juárez , an open signal is broadcast from the TV Azteca and Televisa networks, this city suffered a great impact by the digital law of the United States. Remember that only the analog channels are different from the digital and HD because for these formats you need a converter box or an HDTV. The signals of:

(5.2 HD) – ABC (7.1 HD) – My Network (4.2 Digital) – XEJ-TV / Galavisión Televisa (5 analog, 5.1 Digital) – The CW (7.2 Digital) – Channel Weather (7.3 Digital) – Azteca America (7.4 Digital) – NBC (9.1 HD) – Star TV (9.2 Digital) – Azteca 13 (11 analog and 11.1 HD) (26.1 HD) – PBS (13.1 HD) – Art Channel (13.2 Digital) – FOX (14.1 HD) – RTV (14.2 Digital) – Azteca 7 (20 analog and 20.1 HD) – Multimedia Television (26 analog) KSCE Life (38.1 Digital), KSCE Life (38.2 Digital), KSCE Life-2 (38.3 Digital), KSCE Life-2 (38.3 Digital) KSCE Bible (38.4 Digital) – Channel 44 news channel / Chain three (44 analog, 44.1 HD) – 44 Alternative (44.2 Digital, in this signal programs are transmitted from both channels) – UACJ TV / Aprendre TV (44.3 Digital) – Milenio TV (44.4 Digital) – Telemundo (48 analog and 47.1 HD) – Inmigrante TV 47.3 Digital) – Channel 5 Televisa (56 analog and 56.1 HD) – Unimás (65.1 HD) – World FOX (65.2 Digital) – Zuus Latino (65.3 Digital) – LATV (65.4 digital)

  • In Mexicali all channels have their signal in HD:

– Televisa Mexicali 3.1 – Azteca Thirteen 5.1 – Project40 5.2 – Univision 7.1 – LATV 7.2 – Zuus Latino 7.3 – Fox 9.1 – ABC 9.2 – The CW 9.3 – Telemundo 9.4 – NBC 11.1 – This TV 11.2 – CBS 13.1 – Tuff TV 13.2 – Star TV 13.3 – Channel of the Stars 14.1 – Azteca Seven 20.1 – Channel 5 (Televisa) 32.1 – Gala TV 38.1 – UniMás 54.1 – MundoFox 54.2 – Channel 66 66.1 – CadenaTres 66.2 – Channel 66 (-2Hrs.) 66.3 – Milenio Television 66.4

  • In Puebla HDTV channels are available, TV Azteca starts transmissions in HD broadcasting in 1080i format since 2007, Televisa opens its signal in high definition on October 8, 2010.

– Channel 3 Televisa Puebla – Channel 3.1 – Channel 6 Azteca 13 – Channel 6.1 – Channel 8 XHGC Channel 5 – Channel 8.1 – Channel 10 Channel of the stars (2) – Channel 10.1 – Channel 12 Azteca 7 – Channel 12.1 – Channel 32 Galavision – Channel 32.1

  • In Acapulco Guerrero is currently broadcasting channel five DH 4-1
  • In Querétaro, Azteca 13 channels (13 HD, at 9.1) as well as Azteca 7 (7HD, at tune 36.1), are transmitted in 1080i .
  • In Toluca, channels Azteca 13 (13 HD, at tune 6.1), Azteca 7 (7HD, at tune 19.1 or 45.1) are available. Star channel HD (at 10.1 tuning) and channel 5 HD (at tuning 31.1), transmitted in 1080i .
  • In Leon are available channels Azteca 13 (12.1), Azteca 7 (7.1), Project 40 (12.2), Channel of the Stars (11.1), Channel 5 (25.1), Bajio TV (formerly CDC, (34.2), TV4 Guanajuato (4.1), TVTV (34.5), TVTV (34.5), TVTV (34.5), TVTV , GalaTV (6.1), MilenioTV (6.2) and Multimedia Television (6.3).
  • In Cuernavaca , the “Grupo Televisa” Channel of the Stars is available (10 HD in tuning 10-1, physical channel “36”), Channel 5 “Grupo Televisa” (8 HD in tuning 8-1 physical channel “42”) , Galavisión “Grupo Televisa” (32 HD in tune 32-1 physical channel “47”), Azteca 13 “Grupo Tv Azteca” (13 HD, in tuning 13-1 physical channel “27”) as well as Azteca 7 “Group Tv Azteca “(28 HD, in the tuning 28-1 physical channel” 43 “), transmitted in 1080p for Grupo Televisa and broadcast in 1080i for Grupo Tv Azteca.
  • In Culiacán , Grupo Pacífico Television was the first to introduce TDT with channels 3.1 and 3.2 in HD, currently broadcast live programs in HD. Today Televisa already has channels 7.1 and 22.1 in HD (channel of the stars and channel 5 respectively) and transmits in 16: 9 1080i with Alternate Audio (SAP)
  • In Durango , Channel 10 introduced the channel 10.1 in High Definition, for programs like “Clarifying dawn”, “Time and space”, “Pa ‘race grupera”, among others.
  • In Sonora, Cd. Obregón’s Canal 2 Yaqui Televisora ​​began digital broadcasts in September 2011 with channels 2.1 and 2.2 (Cofetel channel 32 allocation). They eventually broadcast special programs on channel 2.1 in HD with Local production and the rest are cultural programs and music videos in HD and in channel 2.2 it has the same signal of the analog channel in SD in 4: 3 scaled to 16: 9. It is the only HD transmission truck in the whole of Northwest Mexico.

Currently TV Azteca emits Azteca 7 , Azteca 13 and Project 40 in High Definition format.

  • In Veracruz, there are 11 digital channels at 1080i:

– XHAJ-TDT Televisa Veracruz or Telever (state version) channel 5 analog is channel 5.1 in digital. (This channel is not HD but emits images and sound with digital quality). – XHAI-TDT Channel 5 channel 9 analog is channel 41.1 in High Definition, although the TV says that the image is at 1080i and 16: 9, the logo does not have the acronym HD. – XHAH-TDT channel stars channel 7 analog is channel 39.1 in digital. On this occasion if you have a logo with acronyms HD. – XHCLV-TDT Gala TV channel 22 analog is channel 45.1 in high definition. This channel is the same as channel 5 – XHIC-TDT Azteca 13channel 13 analog is channel 13.1 in HD. It is the same signal that comes directly from Mexico . – XHIC-TDT2 Project 40 Only available on channel 13.2 in digital. – XHCPE-DTT Azteca 7 channel 11 in analog is channel 11.1 in digital. – XHFM-TDT Telever Port channel 2 analog is channel 2.1 in digital. This channel is only available to the City of Veracruz . – XHOXPA-TDT Once TV Mexico channel 34 analogue is channel 35-1 in digital and its subchannels:

* 35-2 channel 22 the conaculta 
         * 35-3 TV UNAM

All in standard definition. Soon the channel 4 TV PLUS of the State Government will enter HD by channel 50.1. In 2009 Tv Azteca launched a service called Hi-tv that consists of a decoder that emits the signals of Tv Azteca and Televisa and also other digital channels that are the following: Azteca Novelas , Frizbee , Pelimanía , Az Mix , AYM Sports , Our Tele News 24 Hours , Antena.Neox , Zala TV , TV Mex , Azteca 7 -2h and Azteca 13 -2h .

The standard selected for the transmission of these signals was the American ATSC .

On October 27, 2016, a decree was issued to reassign virtual channels at the national level; currently, virtual channels are assigned by chain (either national or regional) by the IFT for easy identification, for example, Las Vegas retransmitters are always redirected to channel 2.1 regardless of the population or frequency of the actual channel. However, some stations that transmit in populations in the North border, have a channel different from the one provisionally assigned to be these channels being used by other channels in the United States.


The ISDB-T system was adopted for digital television in the country. 12
In Paraguay there are HD versions of the following open TV channels:

  • Telefuturo HD
  • SNT HD
  • RPC HD
  • Red Guaraní HD
  • Latele HD
  • Paravision HD
  • Paraguay HD TV
  • Arandu Rape HD

Also on Pay-TV (cable and satellite) there are high-definition versions of the following ones: Channel 5 HD, Unicanal HD, NPY HD, HEI HD, Tigo Music HD, Tigo Sports HD, Tigo Sports 2 HD, Tigo Sports 3 HD , Tigo Sports 4 HD, CDF HD, Personal Sports HD, One Sports HD, One Sports 2 HD, One Sports 3 HD, Channel 20 HD.


In Peru there are versions in High Definition of the following channels of Open TV:

  • HD Television
  • ATV HD
  • Panamericana HD TV
  • HD Television Latin
  • RBC HD Television
  • Red TV HD
  • TV Peru HD
  • HD TV Education

There are also High Definition versions on Pay TV that are: HD N Channel , ATV + HD, CMD HD, Plus HD TV and RPP HD TV ,

Dominican Republic 

In the Dominican Republic the channel 5 local television, Telemicro in mid-summer 2008, announced that for the first quarter of 2012 will be broadcast in HDTV transmissions. Tricom offers services of HDTV channels in its plans of premium cable being currently one of the companies that at present is giving in service in Dominican Republic. Claro is also providing HD channel service through its IPTV service.

Most Dominican cable and satellite TV companies began converting to HD signal.


In Uruguay there are versions in High Definition of the following channels:

  • Teledoce HD
  • Monte Carlo HD TV
  • Channel 10 HD
  • TVO HD
  • Channel 7 HD
  • Channel 14 HD
  • TNU HD
  • Had City Canal 6 HD
  • MEC HD Television

On Pay TV there are HD versions on the following channels: VTV HD, VTV + HD, VTV Sports HD, TCC Sports HD and MC Sports HD.


European Union

At the pan-European level, high-definition (HD) versions of the following channels

  • Eurosport HD
  • Disney XD HD
  • Discovery Channel HD

Latin America 

In Latin America there are versions of channels in high definition

  • CNN in Spanish HD
  • Fox Sports HD
  • DirecTV Sports HD
  • Sky Sports HD
  • beIN Sports HD
Movies and Series
  • TNT HD


South Korea 

After a long controversy between the government and the broadcasters, the ATSC format was chosen against DVB-T. 2005 was the date when digital services became available throughout the country.

It was imposed that broadcast at least 10 hours each week in HD during the first year of commercial digital service.


Japan has pioneered HDTV for decades with an analog implementation. Its old system is not compatible with the new digital standards. In Japan, HD terrestrial broadcasting with MPEG-2 coding by ISDB-T began in December 2003 . To date two million HD receivers have been sold in Japan. Among the advantages is that it is the only standard that allows joint transmission to fixed (home), portable (portable TV, notebook or PDA) and mobile (cell phones) with a transmitted signal, which leads to a saving of the radio spectrum and infrastructure costs.


For now, many countries are interested in HDTV. The most common is EDTV using DVB .

Although HDTV is still possible with DVB-T , in most countries it is preferred that there are more signals on a single multiplex channel, rather than a single HDTV channel, more common in EE. Canada, Japan and Australia. As a single HDTV channel will occupy the four channel SDTV (8 MHZ) bandwidth, HDTV is not suitable for terrestrial broadcasting needs in Europe. In addition, some governments want to switch to adopting the digital signal for television instead of reassigning the VHF frequencies for other uses. H.264 codec may be the key to future HDTV success in Europe, A new version of DVB-T ( DVB-T2)), will be key to the implementation of HD in Europe, allowing simultaneous placement of several FullHD and 3DTV channels in the same multiplex.

In January 2005, EICTA announced plans for an ” HD Ready ” label for equipment that meets certain requirements, including 720p and 1080i support at 50 and 60 Hz. Displays must include YUV and DVI interfaces or HDMI and have a native vertical resolution of 720 lines or more.

European Union 

The European Commission analyzed the state of emissions to 16: 9 and HDTV in the document The contribution of wide-screen and high definition to the overall roll-out of digital television ( the contribution of wide – screen and high definition to the global expansion of digital television ).

This document states that the previous objectives for the European introduction of HDTV 1999 (or HD-MAC in 1992 ) were not achieved because the market focused on digital technologies and services easier to implement. Therefore, European consumers never had the opportunity to try the HDTV.

It also points to some causes of poor representation of HDTV in the European Union (EU):

  • The dominators of the European market thought HDTV would fail in Europe.
  • Broadcasters preferred to focus on cheaper, multichannel SDTV.
  • An SDTV screen resolution has an effective cost better than an equivalent HDTV.

Later, the commissioners suggested that some coordination in the EU was required for HDTV services to be available to all member states.


The Sky Deutschland payment platform , then called Premiere, began broadcasting three HD channels in December 2005. These channels feature different content (movies, sports and documentaries). Like HD1, Premiere channels use H.264 and DVB-S2 as a compression method. In December 2006 the high-definition sports channel was integrated with that of films. At present, Sky has several high-definition channels in its offer.

In 2006, the private networks ANIXE , Sat.1 and ProSieben began broadcasting in high definition. Later the RTL group strings would be added . Although the private companies began broadcasting these versions in high definition in open, at the moment they are of payment, being integrated in HD + platform , as well as by the cable television.

In 2010, public operators ARD and ZDF began their broadcasts in high definition. These emit to 720p , unlike the private ones and those of payment, that use the format 1080i .

In Germany, high definition is distributed by satellite and cable, but not by DTT.


In Spain Aragon Television makes the first tests of HDTV on DTT in Spain the 15 of June of 2006 , issued both in 720 / 50p and 1080 / 25i using the MPEG4 / H.264 compression to 11 Mbit / s. The first chain with broadcasts in High Definition in regular tests was TV3 (Television of Catalunya) that began the 23 of April of 2007 , coinciding with the Day of San Jorge , from the repeater of the mountain of Collserola , that signals to the city of Barcelona and surroundings. During the test period, TV3HDemitted a small selection of series and contents of its other two channels in a channel that until then was used as a channel of tests and information on DTT. Since November of August of 2008 , TV3HD was replaced in the multiplex 43 by an emission of Valencia regional channel Channel 9 in standard definition and a digital version of K3 / 33. The TV3HD signal resumed its broadcasts on June 18 , 2009 , by the same frequency as in the previous tests. Since August 2009 the autonomic television of the Region of Murcia ( 7RM ) has a high definition channel ( 7RM HD ).

In the first phase, TV3HD emitted in MPEG4 format H.264 to 10,2 Mbit / s in its first phase, which was avoided to use more bandwidth (with which it would consume the MPEG-2) of the already limited and saturated Spanish spectrum. The resolution used was 1440 × 1080i, thus the panoramic contents were anamorphic. The sound track was Dolby Digital 2.0 at 192 kbit / s. It is currently broadcasting again in that resolution and format, but with a lower bandwidth.

Aragón Television began broadcasting on a regular basis in June 2008 and with its own content in June 2009, being the first commercial channel in Spain to broadcast content and HD programming in open. In addition, in 2008 the HD TDT Platform was created between the Catalan Corporation of Audiovisual Media and the Aragonese Corporation of Radio and Television together with TV3 and ATV. To this platform have been added Corporations and Televisions of Asturias, Baleares, Valencia and Murcia in addition to FORTA as an autonomous agency. Its initiative is based on technical exchange and content in High Definition.

TVE launched in 2010 , after the analogue blackout, TVE HD , a channel in high definition that during the 2008 Olympic Games of Beijing was available on platforms Canal + and Movistar TV . The channel started broadcasting through DTT in the city of Valladolid in June 2009. 13 Currently, TVE HD is available throughout Spain.

The private offering of HD began the 20 of September of 2010 with the channel Telecinco HD , 14 currently issues a rescaling of Telecinco programming. A new channel was added to that channel on September 28 : Antena 3 HD , 15 on November 1, 2010 began the La Sexta HD broadcasts whose broadcast format is the same as the channels of Gestevisión Telecinco and Antena 3 .

Digital TV set-top boxes (DTT) that support this format in Spain are starting to dawn, however the set-top boxes compatible with the interactive services of the MHP standard are only commercialized despite the fact that they already offer all the Spanish channels, situation will require that users end up having to change their decoder 1, 2 or even more times to adapt to the changes. The government has pushed for measures that require manufacturers to integrate digital decoders that meet the MPEG-4 HD standards on TVs over 21 inches from July 2010.

The Spanish company Sogecable , which owns the Digital + payment platform, carried out some tests of transmission of HD programs on the Astra satellite on June 16 , 2005. In autumn 2007, the platform began to distribute a new decoder (iPlus) with support for high definition in both DTT and satellite, with the intention of later introducing its own programming offer in high definition. In January 2008 Sogecable launched the Canal + HD channel, which broadcasts in high definition (1080i). This channel has been broadcasting since January 2008 on a regular basis. This first signal has been adding other broadcasts on the same platform, namely: Fox HD, Canal + Liga HD, Canal + HD Action and HD Music.16

Jazztel Internet and telephony provider planned to offer some HD channels through ADSL2 + lines in mid-2006, but may not do so until they start to install VDSL2 technology such as Telefonica .

Since 2007, Telefónica has offered HDTV on its Movistar TV digital TV platform . In principle, it is only possible for Movistar TV users connected via VDSL2 and FTTH and not in ADSL2 + .

The company that owns the cable platform ONO announced it would launch a decoder adapted for the HDTV in early 2008. 17

Also in Spain you can find High Definition content in the satellite broadcast for all Europe HD1, HD2 and HD5 channels (Platform Euro1080 broadcast in 1080i and HD video game platforms such as Xbox 360(1080p) and PlayStation 3 (1080p) video games and other downloadable content are mostly in the 720p format (although they can be seen in 1080i / p). Alternatively through a PC it is also possible to have HD content for a few years, if it is suitably equipped with a graphics card for playing games in High Definition or simply a processorwith enough processing capacity to decode the content, in the case of video in high definition. It is also possible to equip the PC with a Blu-ray or HD DVD disc drive for playback of high-definition discs, although certain DRM protection systems may require specific devices such as wiring or display screen.

  • The 1 HD
  • The 2 HD
  • HD Antenna 3
  • Four HD
  • Telecinco HD
  • The Sixth HD
  • HD Teledeporte
  • Clan HD
  • Real Madrid HD TV
  • Be Mad HD
  • Atreseries HD
  • TV3 HD
  • 7RM HD
  • Telemadrid HD
  • TPA9 HD
  • IB3 HD
  • Television Canaria HD
  • Canal South HD
  • ETB 1 HD
  • ETB 2 HD
  • Aragon HD TV

M6 and TF1 have expressed their intention to broadcast some programs in HD in the near future, however, these are not available in the digital terrestrial television ( DTT ) service that began in 2005.

TPS , competitor of Channel Satellite Numérique also intends to start broadcasting in HD.

Pay-per-view terrestrial channels will use H.264 since September 2005 to allow premium (premium) HDTV content.

United Kingdom 

In the UK the BBC already produces some programs (mainly documentaries) in HD for foreign markets, like the United States and Japan. The Corporation intends to produce all of its HD programs by 2010 . It is believed that the BBC will approve 720p for its progressive scanning technology.

There are no plans for HDTV versions of Freeview and Top Up TV for digital terrestrial television services, because there is no free bandwidth available. This should change after analog TV signals are disconnected, but the date for this disconnection is still being discussed.

The Sky payment platform was scheduled to launch its HD satellite services in 2006. It will be limited to some channels and special events. Sky has confirmed that both 720p and 1080i will be available.

Recent reports suggest that Sky will feature front-line sporting events, such as football matches, for pubs before the launch of the HD home service.

It can almost be assured that cable TV providers will be upgraded to HD as soon as channels are available.



Australia began broadcasting in HD in January 2002 but HD content was not required until August 2003. Most Australian cities with more than 40 000 inhabitants have at least one DTT channel (eg in Albany ( Western Australia) , DTT has been available since May 2005). However, most Australian DTT broadcasters are still experimenting with broadcasts on HDTV.

Recording, compression, and prerecorded media 

HDTV can be recorded on D-VHS (Data-VHS), W-VHS , or on a digital video recorder that supports HDTV like the TiVo offered by DirecTV or the DVR 921 and DVR 942 offered by DISH Network . To 2008, in the United States the only option of engraving is D-VHS . D-VHS records digitally on any VHS tape , requiring a FireWire (IEEE 1394) digital transport to attach the compressed MPEG-2 frame from the modulator device to the recorder. Direct capture of the HD signals to a storage device can also occur as adigital video recorder , or the hard disk of a PC if it has an HDTV decoding card, since no initial recompression is involved, the size of the file depends on the bit rate of the original transmission (up to 19 , 2 Mbit / s), since it simply dumps to the hard disk (it is possible to recompress the content later to a more advanced format – DivX, H.264 – if you want to save disk space). In addition, video capture cards are beginning to appear that, aside from storing HDTV signals on a hard disk, can capture HD content from sources other than the television signal (eg video game consoles such as the Xbox 360 and PS3) without to perform any type of compression, such as the Inmagic Pro (site in Spanish) of Blackmagic Design, it should be noted that the computational power needed to capture and process these signals is relatively high for mid 2008 equipment, requiring hard drives with 3 Gb transfer and computers with dual core processors.

As part of the FCC’s “plug and play” agreement , cable companies must provide customers who rent HD boxes (if they request it) to a functional IEEE 1394 port. No DBS provider has offered this feature in any of the boxes they offer. In July 2004 these ports were not yet in the FCC’s mandate. The available content is protected by an encryption that limits or completely blocks the ability to record it.

Future media

HD programming can be recorded to an optical disc using Blu-ray technologies . Currently the biggest drivers of both formats can be considered Xbox 360 , which can be connected an external HD DVD player(currently obsolete) and has downloadable contents in high definition, and PlayStation 3 , which includes a Blu-ray player both for the games like to watch movies in High Definition. Both video game systems have the most games and content in 720p although they allow 1080p (HD DVD movies and Blu-Ray are all 1080p). This fact can be a great driver of high definition.


In an effort to create a high definition format compatible with bit rates for high definition videos on standard DVD-ROMs , Microsoft introduced the Windows Media 9 Series codec with the ability to compress a high definition bitstream into it space than a conventional NTSC bitstream (which is approximately 5 to 9 Mbit / s for resolutions of 720p and up). Microsoft released the high definition codec of the Windows Media 9 series as the WMV HD . It is necessary to see if the codec will be adopted widely, or at least as a standard of Hi-Fi industry . In November of 2003the WMV HD format required significant processing power to be able to encode and decode a movie, resulting in the only commercially available movie that made use of the codec was Terminator 2 : Extreme DVD Edition . Since then more titles have been released in the WMV HD DVD format such as the acclaimed documentary on Step Into Liquid surfing (Spanish title pending). At the beginning of 2005 Microsoft recommended a 3.0 GHz processor with 512 MiB of RAM and a video card of 128 MiB of memory as minimum requirements to play a movie in 1080p resolution in Windows XPalthough there were already players in the market, such as the KiSS DP-600, who could already play WMV HD DVD ROM discs on HD capable TVs. The codec was sent to the SMPTE (Society of Film and Television Engineers) and has become the standard of the SMPTE, known as VC-1, included in all films in HD DVD format, and recent releases on Blu-Ray (whose early titles were in MPEG-2).

Although its output has been much later than the definition of the format, Microsoft’s own high-definition video game system, the XBOX 360, is compatible directly or through a computer with the Windows XP Media Center operating system, with the format WMV HD since the October 31, 2006 update, and since January 2007 it allows H.264 and MPEG-4 containers but not through Windows Media Center at the moment.


Other codecs, such as the AVC (which is part 10 of MPEG-4 and also known as H.264 ), have been approved by ITU-T standards groups ( Telecommunication Standardization Sector Telecommunications , for its acronym in English) and MPEG ( Group Moving Pictures Experts , for its acronym in English) and have also been approved codecs VP6 and VP7 which were designed by On2 Technologies .

The largest broadcast companies in the United States and Europe have already adopted the H.264 standard. These companies include: DirecTV and the [DISH Network] in the United States and BSkyB (site in English), Premiere (site in German), Canal + and TPS in Europe. The H.264 standard was chosen for several reasons: the first is that the standard was validated as an open standard for at least a year before VC-1 was even seriously considered as a standard and at that time there were doubts about the regulations that Microsoft could impose once the algorithmwas adopted. To date only a few broadcast companies have considered the VC-1 standard. It was thought that VC-1 would have been better than H.264 for the IPTV environment, but according to press releases made by companies that manufacture STB (cable or satellite boxes) (such as such as Amino , Pace , InfoMir and Kreatel, it has been proven that solutions exist based on H.264 standards.

There are rumors that Microsoft may have taken the H.264 standard and would have modified it and upgraded it to market it as the VC-1 without giving credit to MPEG-LA. However this is still a rumor and has never been officially confirmed or denied.

An example of the concerns of cable providers can be found on this site .


On2 reported that China had chosen the VP6 as the standard for the Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) format . Supposedly China wanted to avoid having to pay for WM9 and AVC usage rights. The advantage of using the VP6 would have been that you would not have to pay usage rights on recording media but these costs would be transferred to the price of the players at a cost similar to that of other codecs. As China begins to dominate the manufacture of televisions and DVD players, its decisions in standards takes more weight.

The fact that a codec has a low cost does not mean that it is an advantage over the DVD format, and the players would be incompatible with the DVD-video format unless the rights to use the technologies that are necessary to make the video player can play DVD. Very few videos were released in the VP6 format so it was not generated enough force to force people to buy the VP6 players, which were not compatible with the DVD format. It is unlikely that this format will be adopted by a film study in the United States if there is no method of protection against piracy and this was also not specified. Shortly after it was announced that the VP6 would be the standard of the EVDs the negotiations between On2 and E-World (a group that supported the use of the EVD as standard) deteriorated. On2 reported several breaches of contract by E-World and On2 requested that these breaches be arbitrated but inMarch 2005 was ruled in favor of E-World as it was acknowledged that E-World had not failed in its part of the contract and owed nothing to On2. It was never clarified whether the Chinese government had actually adopted the VP6 as a standard.

HD-DVD and Blu-ray 

Recently the Forum DVD and the Blu-ray Association failed to reach agreement on standards for 12cm high definition discs . In February 2008, after a format war with rival Blu-Ray, Toshiba abandoned HD DVD format, and the HD DVD Promotion Group, which promoted the standard, was dissolved on 28 March 2008. 18

Video codecs, both Blu-Ray and the extinct HD-DVD are MPEG-2 part 2, VC-1 and H.264.

There are currently some DVD players that include the ability to send high definition signals to the TV from standard definition DVDs. This is done by artificially scaling the image, although some screens already do the scaling on their own to adapt the image to the actual resolution of the screen. The only improvement is the solidity of the image, as there are more pixels representing the same pixel content. Some manufacturers of DVD players, usually from little-known Asian brands, or some like Kiss or Philips , take licenses from the DivX codec so that their players can play 720p / 1080i content from content recorded on standard DVD-R discs.

On February 19, 2008, Toshiba announces on its website that it will discontinue the HD DVD format due to “various changes produced in the market”.

“We carefully assessed the long-term impact of continuing the so-called ‘next-generation format war’ and concluded that the decision will best help the market develop,” said Atsutoshi Nishida, President and CEO of Toshiba Corporation. “While we are disappointed for the company and more importantly for the consumer, the real mass market opportunity for high definition content remains untapped and Toshiba is both able and determined to use our talent, technology and intellectual property to make digital convergence to reality” .

“We have carefully evaluated the long-term effects of continuing what has been called” New Generation War Formats “and concluded that a quick decision is the best way to help the development of this market,” said Atsutoshi Nishida, president and CEO of Toshiba Corporation. “Although this is a disappointment to the company, but more importantly, for the consumer, the opportunity for a real mass market of HD content remains unexploited, and at Toshiba we feel capable and determined to use our talent, technology and intellectual properties to make digital convergence a reality. ”

HD Cameras 

In 2003 JVC introduced the GR-HD1, the world’s first HD digital camera targeting the consumer market, recording in 16: 9 720 / 30p with up-converted output on 1080 / 60i and 720 / 60p analog components or output via firewire to 720 / 30p. Later in September 2004, Sony launched its first HD camera for personal use called HDR-FX1 . This camera can record in the 1080i / 60 format (the PAL version records to 1080i / 50) and is capable of recording on a Mini-DV tape using the HDV format . The camera uses the MPEG-2 codec to record video and audio and the 3-CCD systemto add color correctly. Because of this, the HDR-FX1 (in theory) is very close to a professional HD camera. Programs iMovie HD , Final Cut Express HD and Final Cut Pro HD (with Lumiere HD installed) from Apple are able to edit MPEG-2 HD / HDV in a very stable manner. A Macintosh is required to run these programs. For PC users, Adobe Premiere Pro 1.5 and Sony Vegas 6 are able to edit HD. Cinelerra , a popular open source video editor , also lets you edit HDV and can run on a wide range of system architectures. Panasonicand Canon have released cameras that follow the same format as the Sony camera. Cameras used for television transmissions record directly to hard disks through a raw input / output format.

Full HD – 1080p

1080p (also known as Full HD ) is a type of resolution used on high definition television (HDTV) . The 1080 number represents 1080 horizontal lines that account for the vertical resolution, while the letter p refers to progressive scan , as opposed to the interlaced scan .


1080p is considered an HDTV video mode . It is now the standard in high definition 1920 × 1080 pixels 1 = 2,073,600 pixels (2 megapixels). This definition surpasses SDTV .


The term usually means a aspect ratio widescreen 16: 9, implying a horizontal resolution of 1920 pixels and resolution frames of 1920 x 1080 pixels 1 = 2,073,600 pixels (2 megapixels).

Difference with 1080i 

The difference between 1080p and 1080i is that for p each frame is projected by all lines progressively, obtaining better visualization, although only perceptible for the most sensitive view, while with the format i each frame is projected in the middle of the lines, odd or even, or interlaced.



Main article: 720p

720p is the short name for one of the categories of video modes , mainly used in high definition television (HDTV) .


Main article: 4180p

4180p is an alternative name for 4K UHDV resolution . The number 4180 represents 4180 horizontal lines of screen resolution , while the letter p means progressive scanning .